A phase of the human reproductive cycle: menstruation

 

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What is menstruation?

Menstruation can be defined as uterine bleeding from adult women at intervals of one month. It occurs in humans, apes and old world monkeys. In human women, menstruation is repeated at an average interval of about 28 or 29 days. The cycle of events starting from one menstruation until the next one is called menstruation. During this menstrual cycle, an egg emerges in the middle of each menstrual cycle. This phenomenon is called ovulation. The menstrual cycle is regulated by some hormones, some of which are secreted by the pituitary gland.

  1. Menopause – The beginning or first menstruation is called menstruation. It usually occurs at the age of 12 to 15 years but it may vary in some cases.
  2. Menopause – Termination of menstruation, when both ovulation and menstruation stop, which is called menopause. It occurs between 45 and 50 years of age.

Menstrual phase

FIG- Picture showing various events of menstrual cycle

There are four stages of the menstrual cycle: Menstrual phase, Proliferative phase,Ovulatory phase And Secret phase. A discussion of the various events taking place during these phases is given below-

  1. Menstrual phase (bleeding phase or monthly) – In a 28-day menstrual cycle, this phase occurs from 3 to 5 days. Production of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland decreases. It causes degeneration of the corpus luteum. This reduces the production of progesterone. Estrogen production has also decreased over this period. The endometrium (ie inner wall of the uterus) breaks down and menstruation begins. The secretions of the endometrium, the blood, and the cells of the elliptical egg constitute the menstrual flow.
  2. Follicular phase (proliferation phase) – This phase usually occurs on the 6th to 13th or 14th days of the 28-day cycle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates the ovarian follicle secreted by the pituitary gland Estrogen. Estrogen Stimulate proliferation of endometrium of uterine wall. The endometrium wall is rapidly thickened by cell multiplication and is accompanied by growth of uterine glands and blood vessels.
  3. Ovarian phase – Around the 14th day of the cycle (ie in the middle of the 28-day cycle), both LH and FSH attain a peak level. Rapid secretion of LH induces rupture of the graphene follicle and thus a ovum (secondary oocyte release in humans). It is called ovulation.
  4. Luteal phase – This phase occurs from 15th to 28th day in a 28-day cycle. LH is secreted by the pituitary gland. LH causes ovulation. LH stimulates the remaining cells to grow Corpus luteum. In large quantities Progesterone The corpus is secreted by luteum. Progesterone also stimulates the uterine glands to produce an increased amount of mucus of water. This watery mucus is essential for the maintenance of the endothelium. This mucus is also secreted in large amounts by the glands of the fallopian tubes. For implantation of the fertilized egg, the endothelium is very essential and for other events in pregnancy. When fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates. Thus the endothelium decomposes which leads to menstruation, marking the beginning of the new cycle. Thus after the secretory phase, the menstrual phase begins. Menstruation is often described as “Umbrella’s Cry for Ovum’s Ovum”.

Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Is secreted by the hypothalamus of the brain. It can also be called Gonadotrophin-releasing Factors (GnRF). It stimulates the release of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) And Luteinizing hormone (LH). During the proliferative phase, FSH stimulates ovarian follicles to produce estrogen. LH stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete progesterone.

  1. Menstrual phase occurs due to lack of progesterone and estrogen.
  2. The proliferative phase occurs due to increased production of estrogen.
  3. LH causes ovulation.
  4. Due to increased production of progesterone, the secretory phase occurs.

Period products

When a woman gets her period she needs something to soak up the blood. And that is the purpose of the period products. The most common products used are pads, tampons, and menstrual cups. Apart from soaking the blood, these products are also important from a hygiene point of view. Clean products should always be used for menstrual purposes. In fact, in many areas, women use dirty clothes, rips, or sand to control the flow of menstruation. And sadly, about 23 million girls drop out of school when they get their first period. These things about periods are the result of ignorance and illiteracy in people. It is time to understand that this is not a shame. Periods are common, like breathing, which are necessary for our species to survive.


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