Blocks of elements: S, P, D, F


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The periodic table of elements has 7 periods and 18 groups. The elements of the table are divided into 4 blocks. These 4 blocks are known as s, p, d, and f blocks. The blocks are formed on the basis of the orbit of atoms that are being filled by electrons. Elements in the same vertical group or column have similar shell-shell electronic configurations and also exhibit similar chemical behavior. The reason for the similarity is that these elements have the same number of electrons and an equal distribution of electrons in their outer orbit.

FIG – 4 blocks of elements

S block elements

Group 1 elements (alkali metals) and group 2 elements (alkaline earth metals) which are ns1 and ns2 electronic configuration of s-block elements. They are all reactive metals with less reactive thalapies. They easily lose the outermost electron (s) to form either a 1+ ion (in the case of alkali metals) or a 2+ ion (in the case of alkaline earth metals). Groups, metallic character, and reaction increase. Due to high reactivity, they are never found pure in nature.

P-block element

Elements of group numbers 13–18 are considered p-block elements. P-block and S-block elements together are considered to be representative elements or main group elements. The outermost electronic configuration varies from ns2np1 to ns2np6 in each period. A noble gas element is present at the end of each period with a closed valence shell ns2np6 configuration. And in the valence shells of noble gases, the orbitals are completely filled by electrons and the static arrangement of electrons is very difficult to change. Adding or removing electrons. Thus noble gases exhibit very little chemical reactivity. Halogen (group 17) and chelkens (group 16) are 2 chemically important groups of non-metals. These two groups of elements have a highly negative electron gain thalapies and combine one or two electrons, respectively, to achieve a stable noble gas configuration. Below the group, the character of the metal increases. And increases from left to right by duration in a non-metallic character.

D-block elements

Elements from group numbers 3 to 12 in the center of the table are considered D-block elements. These elements have a common external electronic configuration (n-1) d1-10ns0-2. They are all metals. They mostly form colored ions, have variable validity (oxidation states), parametricism, and often use as catalysts. In a way, transition metals form a bridge between chemically active metals of S-block elements and less active elements of groups 13 and 14 and thus take their familiar name “Transition element”.

F block elements

The two rows of elements below the periodic table are known as F-block elements. Their (n-2) f1-14 (n-1) are external electronic configurations of d0-1ns2. They are called lanthanoids. Ce (Z = 58) -Lu (Z = 71) and Actinoids, Th (z = 90) -Lr (Z = 103). The last electron added to each element is filled in the F-orbital. These two series of elements are therefore called internal transition elements (F-block elements). They are all heavy metals. Actinoid elements are radioactive in nature. Most actinoid elements have been reduced only in nanogram quantities or even by nuclear reactions and their properties have not been fully studied. Subsequent elements of uranium are called Tranranium element.


  • Helium is strictly related to the S-block, but it is located in the P-block with noble gas elements (group 18). And this is completely justifiable because it has a fully filled shell shell (1s2). And thus it exhibits great gases.
  • Hydrogen has only one S-electron and hence can be placed in group 1 (alkali metals). It can also acquire an electron to achieve a noble gas arrangement and thus this group can behave similarly to 17 elements. Since this is a special case, hydrogen is placed separately at the top of the table.
  • In S-block, all elements are mainly ionic except lithium and beryllium.
  • In d-block, Zn, Hg, and Cd whose electronic configuration (n-1) is d10 Ns2 Do not show most properties of transition elements.

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