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The combination of elements to form a compound depends on some basic rules. There are 5 laws of chemical composition.
Law of public protection
The law stated that the case could neither be created nor destroyed. This law was stated in 1789 by Antoine Lavoisier. They carried out various careful experimental studies for combustion reactions in various ways to arrive at the above conclusion. This law later formed the basis for many developments in chemistry. This was the result of accurate measurements of the mass of reactants and products and of carefully employed experiments by Lavoisier.
Law of definite proportions
This law was given by Joseph proust, A French chemist. it states that A given compound always has the same ratio of elements by weight. He worked with two samples of cupric carbonate, one of natural origin and the other a synthetic one. They found that the composition of the elements present in it was the same for both samples. Thus, regardless of the source used, a given compound always contains the same amount of elements in the same proportion. The authenticity of this law has been confirmed with the help of various experiments. Can also be referred to as law Law of definite composition.
Law of multiple proportions
It was said by law Dalton In 1803. This law states that, If two elements can combine to form more than one compound, then the mass of one element that combines with a certain mass of the other element is proportional to the smaller numbers. For example, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form two compounds. They are water and hydrogen peroxide.
Here the mass of oxygen (ie 16 g and 32 g) which together with the fixed mass of hydrogen forms a simple ratio of 16:32 means 1: 2.
Law of gaseous volume
It was said by law Gay Lusak In 1808. Their observation was When a combination of gases occurs or a chemical reaction occurs, they do so in a simple proportion, provided all gases are at the same temperature and pressure. Thus 100 ml of oxygen together with 50 ml of oxygen gives 100 ml of water vapor.
Therefore, the amounts of hydrogen and oxygen that are united to bear a simple ratio of 2: 1. Gay-Lussac’s search for integer ratios in the volume relation can in fact be termed as a rule of definite proportions by volume. The law of fixed proportions was stated with respect to mass. Gay-Lussac’s law was elaborated in 1811 about Avogadro’s work.
In 1811, Avogadro proposed that the same volume and pressure of gases at the same temperature should contain the same molecules. He made a distinction between atoms and molecules, which can be easily understood at the present time. If the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water is taken as an example, it can be seen that the two volumes of hydrogen are united with one quantity of oxygen, without releasing any oxygen without two Make water in quantity. Avogadro’s experiment was published in a French journal called De Physique. Although the experiments were correct, it did not gain much fame and support. After almost 50 years, the first international conference on chemistry was held in 1860 in Karlsruhe, Germany to address various ideas. At the meeting, Stanislao Cannizzaro presented a sketch of a course in chemical philosophy emphasizing the importance of Avogadro’s work.