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Role and Meaning of Genetic Cells
A cell, an organism, or a species is unique only if the protein is unique. Cells are developed by DNA information to produce their proteins. DNA information exists in the DNA strand as a special sequence of bases and is called a genetic code. It is referred to as a protein-synthesizing unit. mRNA or messenger RNA Synthesized on a DNA template. The amino acids to be synthesized are decided by the order of the bases in the MNAR. The function of the genetic code is to determine the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
Nature of genetic code
Different combinations of nucleotides form amino acids. There are twenty types of amino acids and only four types of nucleotides (that is) Adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)).
1-> 1 correlation is not possible
If a sequence of two bases is coded for one amino acid, then the four bases can specify 16 amino acids.
This is also not enough. So three bases should code for one amino acid, then four bases would specify 64 (4 * 4 * 4) amino acids. Clearly, a sequence of three bases, called Triple codE is the most basic code that can account for 20 amino acids. The sequence of base triples in DNA molecules constitutes a genetic code.
-> suggested by George gemo In 1954.
->Nirenberg and Mathai Evidence was soon provided to suggest that the genetic code is a triplet.
Description of genetic code
The first codon was decafed in 1961 Marshall Nirenberg As uuu for phenylalanine. Marshall Nirenberg and Hargobind Khorana Determined the sequence based on which amino acids are coded with the help of experiments. He received the Nobel Prize for this work 1968.
Coding and decoration
UUU, UUC – Phenylalanine (Phe)
UUA, UUG – Leucine (Lew)
CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG – Leucine (Lew)
AUU, AUC, AUC – Isoleucine (Ile)
AUG – Methionine (Meter)
GUU, GUC, GUA, GUG – Valine (Val)
UCU, UCC, UCA – Serine (Ser)
CCU, CCC, CCA, CCG – Proline (Pro)
ACU, ACC, ACA, ACG – Threonine (Thr)
GCU, GCC, GCA, GCG – Alanine (ALA)
UAU, UAC – Tyrosine (try)
CCU, CCC – Histidine (Hts)
CAA, CAG – Glutamine (Gin)
AAU, AAC – Asparagus (Asan)
AAA, AAG – Lysine (Lys)
GAU, GAC – Aspartic Acid (Asp)
GAA, GAG – Glutamic Acid (Glu)
UGU, UGC – Cysteine (Cys)
UGG – tryptophan (TRP)
CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG – Argine
AGU, AGC – Serine (Ser)
AGA, AGG – Argin
GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG – Glycine (Glyc)