Common Code – Part 2

 

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genetic code

introduction

The hidden information exists in the strands as a special sequence of bases called the genetic code.

Alphabetical order of genetic code

The genetic code of DNA has some established fundamental characteristics. These are given below –

1. Triple Nature – The nature of genetic code is that it is a triple code. The 3 adjacent bases, known as a codon, represent an amino acid. 1, 2, and 3Third The chairs represent the 5 ‘to 3’ direction.

2. No overlapping – adjacent codons do not overlap, they do not share any basis. Each single base is only part of a single coding.

The sequence CCUCGA is read only as CCU and CAG, not as CCU (Proline), CUC (Leucine), UCA (Serine), and CAG (Glutamine). The code for a protein containing 100 amino acids consists of 300 nucleotides that are linked in a linear order. If overlapping triple codons are involved, a series of 6 nucleotides can code for at least 4 amino acids. But this is not the case. It actually only codes for amino acids, proline and glutamine.

3. Any punctuation – the genetic code is a comma. There are no punctuation (gaps) or hyphens between coding triples. Code reading begins at a certain point and continues three nucleotides at once, without nonsense coding. This nonsense continues coding which marks the end of the message.

4.Universality – The genetic code is universal which is a given codon in DNA and the messenger RNA specifies the same amino acid in protein-synthesis systems of all organisms, from bacteria to man, even in viruses. This experimental finding proves that messenger RNA differs from chick oviduct and is used as a template in the protein-synthesis system of ribosomes and tRNAs derived from E.coli.

5. Degeneracy (redundancy) – The genetic code implied that it lacks specificity and that an amino acid is often more than one code triple. Only methionine and tryptophan have single triple codons.

6. Connectivity of codons – each codon codes only for one amino acid, not more than two. For example, both the codons GAA and GAG code for glutamic acid, neither of the two codons specifies any other amino acids.

7. Terminator codon – Three of the 64 codes, namely UAG, UAA and UGA, do not specify any amino acids. But, they indicate the end of the message. They are called nonsense or terminator codons.

8.Start coding – AUG is start coding

9. Collinearity – The gene and polypeptide code for it are collier.

10. Gain – Polypeptide Parity

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