Coronavirus .. – geeksforjobs


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They trigger respiratory tract infections in humans and birds that can range from mild to fatal. Some cases of the common cold (often caused by other viruses, mainly rhinoviruses) include mild illnesses in humans, while more lethal variants can cause SARS, MERS and COVID-19. They cause diarrhea in cows and pigs, while they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis in mice.

In the Coronaviridae family, the Nidovirless order, and the Riboviria realm, constitute the coronavirus subfamily Orthocoronavirinae. They have viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome and a helical symmetric nucleocapid. The size of the coronavirus genome ranges from about 26 to 32 kg, which is the largest in RNA viruses. Is their specialty.

* Etymology *

In 1971, the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses (later called the International Committee for the Classification of Viruses) approved the scientific name Coronavirus as a genus name. With the increase in the number of new species, in 2009 the genus was divided into four generations, namely alpha-coronavirus, beta-coronavirus, delta-coronavirus, and gamma-coronavirus. The common name is coronovirus.

* Microbiology *

Coronaviruses are large, broadly spherical particles, with characteristic surface projections. Their size is highly variable and their average diameter is typically 120 nm. Extreme sizes with diameters of 50 to 200 nm are known.]On average, the total molecular weight is 40,000 kDa. They are wrapped in envelopes with a variety of protein molecules. When it is outside the host cell, lipid bilayer envelopes, membrane proteins, and nucleocapsid protect.

To prevent or cure human coronovirus infection, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs. Various antiviral targets such as viral protease, polymerase, and entry protein have been identified. Drugs that target these proteins and various stages of viral replication are in progress. For various human coronaviruses, a series of vaccines using different methods is also under development. To treat animal coronaviruses, there are no antiviral drugs.


It has been estimated that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses existed as recently as 8000 BCE, although some models position the common ancestor as far back as one million years or more, that is, bat and Suggests long-term uplift with avian species. The most common ancestor of the alphacoronavirus line was placed around 2400 BC,

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