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First satellite launched by ISRO
Aryabhata was the first satellite made by Indian scientists of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). It was an unmanned satellite. The satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer Aryabhata. The satellite was launched on 19 April 1975. The satellite was launched from Kapuestin Yar, a Russian rocket launch and development site in Astrochan Oblast. It was launched using the launch vehicle Cosmos-3M. And it was a proud moment for Indians. It was primarily designed to conduct experiments in aeronomics, solar physics and X-ray astronomy. The spacecraft was a polyhedron of 26 arms and was 1.4 meters in diameter. Aryabhata weighed 360 kg. All the faces were covered with solar cells, except the top and bottom faces. On 11 February 1992, the satellite reestablished the Earth’s atmosphere.
First satellite launched from India
Aryabhata was actually the first satellite, but it was launched from Russia. But SLV-3E1 was the first satellite launched from India by ISRO. It was launched on 3 August 1979. It was launched under the Rohini Technology payload. The SLV can reach an altitude of 400 km and carries a payload of 40 kg. This was marked as experimental flight. But the first launch was unsuccessful. A few minutes after launch, it plunged into the Bay of Bengal. But the second launch was successful. This successful launch took place on 18 July 1980. The launch was also marked as experimental and launched under the Rohini Technology payload.
4 launches under Rohini Technology payload. The 4th launch took place on 17 April 1983. The third and fourth launches were marked as development. They were characterized as such because the devices were not meant to have a long service life. It was all solid and was a 4 stage vehicle. It weighed about 17 tons and had a height of 22 meters. It was capable of placing a 40 kg class payload in the Low Earth Orbit which is also known as LEO. The successful launch took place under the guidance of ISRO Chairman Satish Dhawan. APJ Abdul Kalam was also a key part of the team. The successful launch of the SLV led to various new projects such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The SLV-3 was India’s first satellite launch vehicle.
And from that point on, ISRO has come on a long journey. On December 16, 2015, ISRO celebrated its 50th launch from Sriharikota at the Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC). On 22 October 2008, ISRO launched Chandrayaan-1, a lunar orbiter. . It discovered lunar water in the form of ice. Then on 5 November 2013, ISRO sent its Mars Orbiter Mission, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014. And with this, India became the first country to enter Mars in the first attempt and also the first country in Asia to reach Mars orbit. On 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites in a rocket, a world record. And on 22 July 2019, ISRO launched its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2, which was unfortunately not completely successful. But ISRO has several other upcoming projects and will certainly be set to more standards with ISRO.