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In this I want to explain the dynamics of p-type semiconductors using Hall coefficient and carrier density and Hall effect experiment set up.

## equipment

Constant current source digital gausmeter, DC regulator power supply, power magnifying poles, gauss props (Hall proper), connecting wires

## The thread

Hall coefficient R = (V / I) * (T / B)

V = Hall Voltage

I = hall current

T = thickness

B = magnetic flux density = 1500 * 10 ^ -4

R = Hall coefficient

Conductivity measurements cannot indicate whether one or two types of carriers exist, nor are there differences between them. However, this information can be obtained from Hall effect measurements, which are basic tools for the determination of mobility. This effect was discovered by EH Hall in 1879.

As you undoubtedly know that charges in static magnetic field have no effect unless they are in motion. When the transformations flow, a magnetic field exerts a direct force on the charges. When this happens the electrons and pores will be repelled by an electric field that depends on the cross product of the magnetic intensity and current density.

In general, the Hall voltage is not a linear function of the applied magnetic field that the Hall coefficient is generally not a constant. But a function of the applied magnetic field. Consequently, the interpretation of the hall voltage does not calculate this hall voltage. If it is assumed that all carriers have the same drift velocity, then we will do the steps assuming that both types of carriers are present.

Metal and degenerate or doped semi conductors are EGs of this type regardless of whether a carrier dominates.

The carrier is compensated by the magnetic force and the Hall field.

R = 1 / q

From this equation, it is clear that it depends on the Hall coefficient on the sign of Q. This means that R in a p-type sample will be positive while in an n-type it will be negative and the Hall voltage for a fixed magnetic field and input is in the ratio of 1 / n of its resistivity. When we dominate the conductivity of a carrier material is a = nqu

Where you are the mobility of the electron.

U = Ra

This equation provides an experimental measurement of mobility

Internal and tightly doped semiconductors are examples of this type. In such a case, quantitative interpretation of the Hall coefficient is more difficult because both types of carriers contribute to the Hall area. It is also clear that for similar electric fields, the Hall voltages of the p-carriers are opposite to the sign of that form n-carriers. As a result, both enter any calculation of the mobility coefficient and have a weighted average result.