Hypertext Markup Language | HTML | Web development | 2021


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HTML stands for hypertext markup language. It is the standard text formatting language used for creating and displaying pages on the Web. HTML is not a programming language.

A programming language is the one in which we have the right to take decisions. HTML constitutes of two terms:

Hypertext: Hypertext simply means “Text within Text.” Markup language: A markup language is a computer language that uses tags to define elements within a document. Markup files constitutes of standard words, rather than typical programming syntax.




<title > Web engineering tutorial </title>






Basic terminologies


HTML tag is just opening or closing entity.

For example:

<p> and </p> are called HTML tags


HTML element encompasses opening tag, closing tag, content (optional for content-less tags)


<p> This is the content </p>
This complete thing is called a HTML element.


It is used for the enhancement of web page.


<body text=”red”> Here, text is an attribute. Attribute basically stands for additional properties which can be used for the enhancement of web page.

What does DOCTYPE means ?

The <!doctype> declaration must be the very first thing in your HTML document, before the <html> tag. When performing HTML validation testing on a web page–

<!doctype> declaration tells the HTML validator which version of HTML standard the web page coding is supposed to comply with. Not mentioning DOCTYPE will pose threat to browser compatibility and the use of older versions of HTML. The browser will not support the use
of certain new features and tags that come with latest versions of the markup languages. A DOCTYPE also controls whether the browsers uses standard or quirk mode to render the document.

Layout of HTML

Layout of html
  • Header – Defines a header for a document
  • Nav – Defines a container for navigation links
  • Section – Defines a section in a document
  • Article – Defines an independent self-contained article
  • Aside – Defines a sidebar
  • Footer – Defines a footer for a document

Accessibility in HTML

Accessibility for the web means making sure that our web pages and applications are available to everyone, including people with disabilities.

For example:

A blind person might be using a device that reads the webpage for him.

For that you need to provide proper captions and attributes. Alt attribute is used in images, to enable the device to describe images as well.

Key factors for achieving accessibility:

  • Good Design
  • Semantic HTML
  • HTML Support
  • HTML5 & ARIA

Logical and physical tags in HTML

Logical tags

These tags are designed to describe (to the browser) the enclosed text’s meaning.

Physical tags

Physical tag provides specific instructions on how to display the text they enclose.

Important Questions

  1. What is HTML ?
  2. Define doctype in html ?
  3. Explain accessibility in html ?
  4. What do you mean by physical and logical tags ?

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