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Parasitism is an association seen in nature. In parasitism, one organism benefits and another is harmed. The living organism is Parasite While the creature is called The host. The parasite often receives nourishment and shelter from the host. The host can survive without a parasite, but a parasite cannot live without a host.
The word parasite comes from the word Parasite Meaning ‘a guest’. The study of parasites is called Parasitology. When there are lots of parasites in the environment, it is called Parasitic population.
If the parasite causes disease in the host, it is known as A. Pathogen. An example is the HIV virus that causes AIDS in humans.
Types of parasites
Depending on where they live
endoparasites Live inside the host. They live in a similar environment. Therefore they lack sense organs. These can again be divided into four
1. Intracellular parasites – inside the cell of organisms
2. Tissue Parasites – Inside the tissue of organisms
3. Body fluid parasites – inside the body fluids of organisms
4. Intestinal parasites – organisms inside the intestine
(A) Dysentery amoeba is a protozoa that lives inside the human intestine that causes dysentery.
(b) Malaria parasite is a protozoa in human blood that causes malaria.
(c) The tapeworm lives in the human intestine and causes teniasis. It is commonly found in India.
(d) Ascaris is a roundworm that lives in the human intestine and causes ascariasis.
The (() filarial worm is a roundworm that lives inside the lymphatic vessels and lymphatic glands while its larval microfilaria live in the blood. This causes Elephantiasis or filariasis.
(f) The guinea worm is a roundworm that lives in human subcutaneous tissue and causes guinea worm disease.
Exoparasites Live outside the host.
(A) Lice suck blood and cause typhus, relieve fever, trench fever
(b) Ratflia transmit rat germs to humans and cause plague.
(c) Tick causes typhus or tick-bite fever
(d) Itching mite causes severe itching or itching in humans.
The organism is based on the life of the parasite
Permanent parasite Are those who live permanently on the host
Examples are all endoparasites mentioned above
Temporary Parasites are those parasites that live temporarily on the host.
(a) Leech suck the blood of cattle and humans.
(b) Bedbugs suck the blood of humans and cause sleeplessness.
(c) Mosquito sucks blood and causes malaria, dengue, and chikungunya etc.
(d) Kala-Azar disease is caused by sandwiches.
Depending on the type of hosts
Phytoparasites Plants are parasites
Examples are insect, root nematode, stem borers, aphids, red cotton bug etc.
Means of infection
(i) By direct contact with infected persons.
(ii) boredom through the skin
(iii) Ulcers or ingesting eggs or larvae
(iv) By biting other organisms such as mosquitoes.
Zooparasites Animals are parasites
Other parasites are called parasites. hyperparasite.
In the environment we live in, there are a lot of parasites. They can be mainly divided into three types based on the type of host, the type of life on the host and where they live on the host.