# Transformer: Definition and Expression of Losses

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Transformer A passive electrical device that is used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another or to multiple circuits. The output can be step up or step down by varying numbers of primary and secondary windings. The efficiency of the transformer depends on the losses in it.

## Copper deficiency in transformer

Copper is lost due to the power wasted as IR, where ‘I’ passes through the winding and ‘R’ is the internal resistance.
The loss due to copper is proportional to the square of the current, and depends on the load current. As a result, the copper loss in the transformer varies with the load.
Therefore it is called as a variable loss.
PCube= Me12* R1 + Me22* R2
The relationship between copper loss and full and half load: PCube(HL) = (1/2) ^ 2 * PCube(FL). HL stands for half load and FL stands for full load.

## Eddy current loss

The induction of EMFs in the core causes a loss of eddy current that causes the flow of circulating currents in the core. The formation of these eddies denotes signal currents.
The heat loss caused by these circulating currents is called eddy current loss.
This can be reduced by manufacturing cores in the form of lamination stacks.
Pay = kI* F2 * T 2* BM2 Watt
Where on
K = eddy current constant.
The total main losses in a transformer are: PC = PJ + PI Where pI = Eddy current loss;
PC = Total iron loss; PJ = Hysteresis loss

## Hysteresis loss

Hysteresis loss occurs due to reversal of magnetism at the core of the transformer. This loss depended on the amount and grade of iron, the frequency of magnetic reversal, and the value of flux density. This can be represented by the Steinmetz formula:
PJ= = * BMaximum1.6* f * V (watt)
Where, constant = Steinmetes hysteresis constant; Core volume in m3 =